Password spraying – aplicare de cosmetice in calculatoare

In a traditional brute-force attack, a malicious actor attempts to gain unauthorized access to a single account by guessing the password. This can quickly result in a targeted account getting locked-out, as commonly used account-lockout policies allow 3-to-5 bad attempts during a set period of time. During a password-spray attack (also known as the low-and-slow method), the malicious actor attempts a single password against many accounts before moving on to attempt a second password, and so on. This technique allows the actor to remain undetected by avoiding rapid or frequent account lockouts.

Password spray campaigns typically target single sign-on (SSO) and cloud-based applications utilizing federated authentication protocols. An actor may target this specific protocol because federated authentication can help mask malicious traffic. Additionally, by targeting SSO applications, malicious actors hope to maximize access to intellectual property during a successful compromise.

Email applications are also a target. In those instances, malicious actors would have the ability to utilize inbox synchronization to (1) obtain unauthorized access to the organization’s email directly from the cloud, (2) subsequently download user mail to locally stored email files, (3) identify the entire companys email address list, and/or (4) surreptitiously implements inbox rules for the forwarding of sent and received messages.

Technical Details

Traditional tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) for conducting the password-spray attacks are as follows:

  • Use social engineering tactics to perform online research (i.e., Google search, LinkedIn, etc.) to identify target organizations and specific user accounts for initial password spray
  • Using easy-to-guess passwords (e.g., Winter2018, Password123!) and publicly available tools, execute a password spray attack against targeted accounts by utilizing the identified SSO or web-based application and federated authentication method
  • Leveraging the initial group of compromised accounts, download the Global Address List (GAL) from a targets email client, and perform a larger password spray against legitimate accounts
  • Using the compromised access, malicious actors attempt to expand laterally (e.g., via Remote Desktop Protocol) within the network, and perform mass data exfiltration using File Transfer Protocol tools such as FileZilla

Indicators of a password spray attack include:

  • A massive spike in attempted logons against the enterprise SSO Portal or web-based application. Using automated tools, malicious actors attempt thousands of logons, in rapid succession, against multiple user accounts at a victim enterprise, originating from a single IP address and computer (e.g., a common User Agent String). Attacks have been seen to run for over two hours
  • Employee logons from IP addresses resolving to locations inconsistent with their normal locations

Typical Victim Environment

The vast majority of known password spray victims share some of the following characteristics [1] [ https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-002 ][2] [ https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST05-012 ]:

* Use SSO or web-based applications with federated authentication method
* Lack multifactor authentication (MFA)
* Allow easy-to-guess passwords (e.g., Winter2018, Password123!)
* Use inbox synchronization allowing email to be pulled from cloud environments to remote devices
* Allow email forwarding to be setup at the user level
* Limited logging setup creating difficulty during post-event investigations

Impact

A successful network intrusion can have severe impacts, particularly if the compromise becomes public and sensitive information is exposed. Possible impacts include:

* Temporary or permanent loss of sensitive or proprietary information
* Disruption to regular operations
* Financial losses incurred to restore systems and files
* Potential harm to an organizations reputation

Solution

Recommended Mitigations

To help deter this style of attack, the following steps should be taken:
* Enable MFA and review MFA settings to ensure coverage over all active, internet facing protocols
* Review password policies to ensure they align with the latest NIST guidelines and deter the use of easy-to-guess passwords
* Review IT Helpdesk password management related to initial passwords, password resets for user lockouts, and shared accounts. IT Helpdesk password procedures may not align to company policy, creating an exploitable security gap
* In addition, many companies offer additional assistance and tools the can help detect and prevent password spray attacks, such as the Microsoft blog released on March 5, 2018 (link below):
https://cloudblogs.microsoft.com/enterprisemobility/2018/03/05/azure-ad-and-adfs-best-practices-defending-against-password-spray-attacks/

TA18-086A: Brute Force Attacks Conducted by Cyber Actors
U.S. Department of Homeland Security US-CERT
03/28/2018

Salesforce Einstein, the #1 CRM becomes the World’s Smartest CRM

Salesforce EinsteinWe live in a hyperconnected world. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning have replaced Big Data as the buzzwords of 2016. If I hear AI I think of movies like “HER” or “Moon” or “2001: A Space Odyssey”. But, AI is reaching a tipping point from being the focus of clever movie plots to a tangible business reality. This is thanks to the access and the ability to crunch petabytes of data and the low cost of high power cloud computing. Gartner already predicted last year that “by 2018, 20% of all business content will be authored by machines”.

What does Einstein mean for our customers?

Powered by advanced machine learning, deep learning, predictive analytics, natural language processing and smart data discovery, Einstein’s models will be automatically customised for every single customer. It will learn, self-tune and get smarter with every interaction and additional piece of data. And most importantly, Einstein’s intelligence will be embedded within the context of business, automatically discovering relevant insights, predicting future behavior, proactively recommending best next actions and even automating tasks.

(Blog Salesforce, 12/12/2016)

Instalare Php 5.6 pe un Max OsX El Capitan

os_x_el_capitan_roundupDaca intelegi titlul, inseamna ca poate te intereseaza acest articol. Versiunea El Capitan de sistem de operare pentru calculatoare Apple, vine cu o versiune de webserver instalata in sistem, adica un Apache cu PHP. Versiunea de PHP este 5.5.x. Unele aplicatii, de exemlpu PHPUnit sau Composer, au nevoie de o versiune mai mare, minim 5.6.x.

Sunt destule articole despre acest upgrade:

Erori la instalare SugarCRM

Ammai incarcat acum 1 an si ceva sa instalez un CRM, numit SugarCRM. Tot de aceleasi erori am dat si de data aceasta si opinia facuta din prima a fost proasta. Contine niste declarari de clase cu metode statice, care se calca una pe alta si genereaza erori de tip Strict si alte comenzi Deprecated.

Sugar_Setup_Wizard_Welcome_to_the_SugarCRM_6.5.23_Setup_Wizard_-_2016-04-15_20.13.49

Instalarea dupa ascunderea notificarilor Strict s-a putut desfasura, dar accesul e oprint din cauza ca se tipareste ceva inaintea deschiderii sesiunii. Solutia este ca in index.php sa fie specificata ascunderea erorilor de tip Strict si Deprecated.

error_reporting(E_ALL ^ E_STRICT ^ E_DEPRECATED);

Piramida tehnologiilor de pe net cu stimarea comerciala

Unii dintre noi avem conturi in sisteme de pe Internet. Sau mai bine zis toata lumea are un cont sau mai multe. Acest cont este o particica din valoarea estimata a sistemului. Pe langa cont, valoarea este data si de comportamentul avut in sistem, cat de adanc esti bagat in sistem.

Piramida de mai jos este publicata aici ca si fapt divers, pentru a cunoaste ce alte sisteme exista in afara de cele frecventate personal.

Ne vedem pe net!

piramida_tehnologie_estimare_valoare_companii

Ce se intampla in spatele servirii si bucatariei intr-o pensiune din Bran: La Perla Moieciu

O mama isi publica pe Facebook necazul pe Facebook: fiul ei de 19 ani a lucrat la pensiunea “La Perla Moieciu” din zona Bran, timp de 2 luni si nu a fost platit pentru serviciile de ospatar. Ceea ce e mai grav ca nu au existat formele legale (contract munca). In situatia de fata, cum putem sa o sustinem pe aceasta mama, daca actiunile facute la ITM (Inspectoratul Terirorial de Munca) nu au nici un rezultat?

Ce ar trebui facut de cei care se angajeaza si de angajator in urma prestarii muncii angajatului? Cat de mult adevar cunoscut exista in ambele parti implicate: angajat si angajator? Turistul a plecat, pe el e putin probabil ca mai putem sa il intrebam.

Pensiunea La Perla Moieciu - copyright La Perla MoieciuIn momentul de fata, putem publica din dedesubturile Facebook-ului acest dialog al mamei fostului ospatar de “La Perla Moieciu” si sa il supunem atentiei pentru cititorii si pentru viitori clienti si viitori angajati ai pensiunii. Mai jos este un text integral al dialogului de pe facebook.

Copyright fotografie: La Perla Moieciu
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